I use SDK is nRF5_SDK_15.0.0_a53641a
【1】In examples proprietary_rf , Here is only the example of pca10040 , So I have to download a lower version of the SDK ?
（ lower version SDK have example pca10040e？ ）
【2】This examples ,esb_ptx should be transmitter , and esb_prx is receiver?
【3】What is the difference between esb_low_power_ptx and esb_ptx ? esb_ptx transmission distance is far?
 If you take the pca10040 example and adjust the linker settings, it should be good, How exactly to do this depends on the development environment you're using. Look at some example containing an e variant, such as peripheral/uart/ what the settings should be. like for armgcc you see in the ld file
FLASH (rx) : ORIGIN = 0x0, LENGTH = 0x30000
RAM (rwx) : ORIGIN = 0x20000000, LENGTH = 0x6000
 This is correct
 I don't think there is a distance difference between the examples. The low power example demonstrates switching itself off while retaining the content of RAM. Neither example adjust the transmission power, thus it is at default signal strength for both examples.
In addition to Andre's great answer, I've added some additional points.
1. No, if the current version of the SDK doesn't contain your desired functionality you have to create your own emulated project. Steps that should be completed when creating an emulated project is:
2. Yes this is correct
3. As Andre states, the example doesn't change the transmission power, thus the transmission distance should be the same.
More information regarding developing for the nRF52810 can be found here